I don’t think anyone would dispute that Windows’s overwhelming market share is a significant factor as to why Windows is also the target of an overwhelming majority of security exploitsThe question I’m interested in — and wrote about in “Broken Windows” — is whether this also explains why security exploits against Mac OS X are practically non-existent.
The idea — which is widely-enough held that it probably qualifies as conventional wisdom — is that with regard to attracting security exploits, it is inherent that a monopoly platform will attract virtually all of the exploitsE.g., even if Windows has only 90 percent market share, it somehow makes sense that Windows would attract upwards of 99 percent of all security exploitsAnd that conversely, the Mac’s 4 percent market share should not translate into a 4 percent share of exploitsThe conclusion here being that just because Windows has a disproportionate share of security exploits, does not mean that it has disproportionately more vulnerabilities.
我当然认为这里有些道理I can believe that even if all platforms were assumed to be equally vulnerable, the 90-percent-share monopoly platform would suffer more than 90 percent of the exploitsBut I don’t believe that this explains the extraordinarily disproportionate share of security exploits that Windows suffers.
首先,它不能解释为什么Macpreviously suffered a number of serious virusesThe Mac’s overall market share has never been all that much higher than it is now(苹果once had 16+% market share, but that was back in the Apple II era; to my knowledge, theMac从来没有两位数的市场份额)。
For another, it doesn’t explain the fact that some security exploits are aimed at extremely specific targets, including subsets of the Windows population that are much smaller than the overall Mac populationFor example, the Witty worm, released in March this year, was specifically targetted only at Windows machines running specific versions of firewall software fromInternet Security Systems。
Twelve thousand machines was the entire vulnerable and exposed population, and Witty infected them all — worldwide — in 45 minutesIt’s the first worm that quickly corrupted a small population.
(参见:“反思机智:分析攻击者” from the MITRE Institute and the International Computer Science Institute.)
Despite the fact that Mac OS X is relatively secure, Mac OS X users should not grow complacentWitty devastated a target population vastly smaller than the overall Mac OS X population.
There are factors other than market share that have led to the remarkable paucity of security exploits on Mac OS XMaybe it’s superior engineering by Apple’s engineers; maybe it’s something along the lines of my “Broken Windows” theory; maybe it’s just dumb luckMy guess is it’s a combination of those three, more or less in that order但它是的东西。
谷歌的时代精神usually contains a chart listing the percentages of Google users broken down by OSTheir numbers for April 2004 show Windows with 92 percent market share; the Mac, 4 percent: