In 1779, Samuel Crompton, a retiring genius from Lancashire, invented the spinning mule, which made possible the mechanization of cotton manufactureYet England’s real advantage was that it had Henry Stones, of Horwich, who added metal rollers to the mule; and James Hargreaves, of Tottington, who figured out how to smooth the acceleration and deceleration of the spinning wheel; and William Kelly, of Glasgow, who worked out how to add water power to the draw stroke; and John Kennedy, of Manchester, who adapted the wheel to turn out fine counts; and, finally, Richard Roberts, also of Manchester, a master of precision machine tooling — and the tweaker’s tweakerHe created the “automatic” spinning mule: an exacting, high-speed, reliable rethinking of Crompton’s original creationSuch men, the economists argue, provided the “micro inventions necessary to make macro inventions highly productive and remunerative.”
工作既不这些人构成了可怜的对比工作,因为工作没有真正“发明”——而不是在某种意义上,工业革命的发明家乔布斯理解技术，但不是工程师他有着非常精致的品味但不是设计师乔布斯实际上做了多少是他生活和工作的神秘之处，而艾萨克森，令人沮丧的是，似乎对此没什么兴趣，或任何认识到乔布斯的礼物真的是什么甚至有任何神秘感。Gladwell, alas, takes Isaacson’s portrait of Jobs at face value:
In the eulogies that followed Jobs’s death, last month, he was repeatedly referred to as a large-scale visionary and inventor. But Isaacson’s biography suggests that he was much more of a tweakerHe borrowed the characteristic features of the Macintosh — the mouse and the icons on the screen — from the engineers at Xerox PARC, after his famous visit there, in 1979The first portable digital music players came out in 1996Apple introduced the iPod, in 2001, because Jobs looked at the existing music players on the market and concluded that they “truly sucked.” Smart phones started coming out in the nineteen-ninetiesJobs introduced the iPhone in 2007, more than a decade later, because, Isaacson writes, “he had noticed something odd about the cell phones on the market: They all stank, just like portable music players used to.”
If this is the standard for innovation, then what product, from any company, has truly been innovative? Some people — most people? — can’t get their heads around the idea that “innovation” doesn’t mean “creating something 100 percent new using never before seen technology, ideas, and concepts”是的，在iPod之前有数字音乐播放器iPhone之前有“智能手机”但是,我说,这些产品之间的差异和苹果公司的iPod和iPhone没有“调整”。
这里有一个视频1982年施乐明星乔布斯和苹果,格拉德威尔会让你相信,“调整”创建Macintosh您可以自己判断界面与Macintosh的界面相似程度施乐公司的业务模式无疑对许多基本概念Mac建立在,但熟悉Mac将完全丧失试图利用明星没有显著的指令但关键区别恒星和麦金塔电脑不是设计,但民主化。根据维基百科，大约1981年的典型Star安装成本约为75,000美元 - 它需要一个网络和专用文件服务器 - 每个额外的工作站起价为16,000美元1984年的Macintosh价格为2,495美元（乔布斯希望它更便宜）。
将100000美元的网络工作站的概念引入独立的大众市场个人电脑是2500美元,我说的,上有很大的创新麦金塔电脑没有“调整”皮克斯没有“调整”The iPod is maybe the closest thing among Jobs’s career highlights that one could call a “tweak” of that which preceded it — but it’s hard to separate the iPod, the device, from the entire iTunes ecosystem in terms of measuring its effect on our culture and the way everyone today listens to musicDoes anyone really think Apple’s entry into the music industry was a “tweak”? A “large-scale visionary” is precisely what Steve Jobs was.
The idea for the iPad came from an engineer at Microsoft, who was married to a friend of the Jobs family, and who invited Jobs to his fiftieth-birthday party正如乔布斯告诉艾萨克森：
This guy badgered me about how Microsoft was going to completely change the world with this tablet PC software and eliminate all notebook computers, and Apple ought to license his Microsoft software但他做的设备都错了It had a stylus. As soon as you have a stylus, you’re deadThis dinner was like the tenth time he talked to me about it, and I was so sick of it that I came home and said, “Fuck this, let’s show him what a tablet can really be.”
How is that “the idea for the iPad”? The motivation to make the iPad, perhaps额外推动从中获取“平板电脑”的想法理念堆和移动它让我们开始吧,更有可能But how can anyone read the above paragraph and come away with “The idea for the iPad came from an engineer at Microsoft”? (And even with regard to motivation, if you really think the iPad would not exist if not for that one blowhard tablet PC engineer from Microsoft, you’re nuts.)
如果一些看似显而易见的传统智慧不仅是完全错误的，而且事实上，事实证明了这一点相反is true? That’s the Malcolm Gladwell formula这里不适合。
我甚至认为把盖茨称为“调整者”是公平的盖茨(仍然)是一个大规模的有远见的在他自己的权利他根本就不是一个人产品空想家But the whole idea that software in general could be more valuable than hardware — or even just valuable, period? Gates该人开创了销售软件的概念可以创建一个软件平台的想法到处都是, on almost all hardware? Gates和他建立了一个公司价值数千亿美元的想法所以请不要误会我的想法，并认为我试图贬低或削弱比尔盖茨的成就Gladwell’s entire premise here is fundamentally flawed; I’m just saying that given that faulty premise, Steve Jobs isn’t the one who fits the description.
什么使格拉德威尔的前提错了就是工作,显然,也是儿童玩的弹弓迭代 - 稳定的渐进式改进，原型后的原型，设计后的设计，年复一年的发布，发布后的发布 - 这个过程在Apple（我认为皮克斯的）文化中根深蒂固但格拉德威尔写道:
The visionary starts with a clean sheet of paper, and re-imagines the worldThe tweaker inherits things as they are, and has to push and pull them toward some more nearly perfect solution.