沃尔特•艾萨克森的“乔布斯”

什么是苹果的心:一个软件公司,还是一家硬件公司?

这是一个长期的问题真相,当然,苹果既不是苹果公司是一个经验他们创建的硬件和软件是创造整个产品体验的一部分。

But, as a thought experiment, which is more important to you? What phone would you rather carry? An iPhone 4S modified to run Android or Windows Phone 7? Or a top-of-the-line HTC, Samsung, or Nokia handset running iOS 5?

What computer would you rather use? A MacBook running Windows 7, or, say, a Lenovo ThinkPad running Mac OS X 10.7?

对我来说,答案很简单这是对我来说最重要的软件我选择一个诺基亚流光运行iOS 5 / iPhone 4 s运行任何其他操作系统,我选择了ThinkPad运行Mac OS X / Mac运行Windows没有犹豫。

你认为乔布斯会选择,面临同样的选择吗?

事实是他可能会打碎任何这样的假设的设备对最近的墙在盛怒之下,但是,如果被迫选择,我相信乔布斯会与软件。1The hardware and the software are both important; Jobs clearly cared deeply about both但是我认为工作最终认为软件是更重要的这是他全部的解释一键设计的iPhone,在舞台上在Macworld Expo 2007年1月,讨论的问题与现有的智能手机市场上乔布斯说:

They all have these keyboards that are there whether you need them or not to be thereAnd they all have these control buttons that are fixed in plastic and are the same for every applicationWell, every application wants a slightly different user interface, a slightly optimized set of buttons, just for itAnd what happens if you think of a great idea six months from now? You can’t run around and add a button to these things他们已经装船。

So what do you do? It doesn’t work because the buttons and the controls can’t changeThey can’t change for each application, and they can’t change down the road if you think of another great idea you want to add to this product.

你怎么解决这个问题?

嗯It turns out, we have solved it! We solved it in computers 20 years agoWe solved it with a bit-mapped screen that could display anything we want把任何用户界面And a pointing device我们用鼠标解决它Right? We solved this problem所以我们怎么把这个移动设备?

What we’re going to do is get rid of all these buttons and just make a giant screen.

几分钟后,乔布斯说:

Now, you know, one of the pioneers of our industry, Alan Kay, has had a lot of great quotes throughout the yearsAnd I ran across one of them recently that explains how we look at thisExplains why we go about doing things the way we do, because we love software.

And here’s the quote: “People who are really serious about software should make their own hardware.”

You know, Alan said this 30 years ago, and this is how we feel about it.

这个设计,摆脱所有的按钮和使一个巨大的屏幕,不仅是今天无处不在的智能手机行业标准,但也完全描述了另一个你可能已经听说过的设备,称为iPad。

设计是它是如何工作的

有很多是错的沃尔特•艾萨克森的乔布斯的传记,但其治疗软件是本书的最深刻的缺陷Isaacson doesn’t merely neglect or underemphasize Jobs’s passion for software and design, but he flat-out paints the opposite picture.

艾萨克森使它似乎乔布斯几乎完全对硬件感兴趣,甚至,只有硬件看起来就像肤浅的美学。

在26章,“设计原则:工作和我的工作室”,艾萨克森写道(p344年精装印刷版):

“Before Steve came back, engineers would say ‘Here are the guts’ — processor, hard drive — and then it would go to the designers to put it in a box,” said Apple’s marketing chief Phil Schiller. “When you do it that way, you come up with awful products.” But when Jobs returned and forged his bond with Ive, the balance was again tilted toward the designers“Steve kept impressing on us that the design was integral to what would make us great,” said Schiller“Design once again dictated the engineering, not just vice versa.”

On occasion this could backfire, such as when Jobs and Ive insisted on using a solid piece of brushed aluminum for the edge of the iPhone 4 even when the engineers worried that it would compromise the antennaBut usually the distinctiveness of its designs — for the iMac, the iPod, the iPhone, and the iPad — would set Apple apart and lead to its triumphs in the years after Jobs returned.

艾萨克森显然认为设计仅仅是一个产品的外观和感觉,而“工程”实际上是如何运作的。

工作,在罗伯·沃克对他的采访好2003年纽约时报杂志概要文件创建的iPod说:

“Most people make the mistake of thinking design is what it looks likePeople think it’s this veneer — that the designers are handed this box and told, ‘Make it look good!’ That’s not what we think design isIt’s not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”

这句话是缺席艾萨克森的书,尽管这本书的频繁使用现有的材料来源相反,艾萨克森包括旧报价:

这是基本原则和我共享工作Design was not just about what a product looked like on the surfaceIt had to reflect the product’s essence“In most people’s vocabularies, design means veneer,” Jobs told Fortune shortly after retaking the reins at Apple“But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of designDesign is the fundamental soul of a man-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers.”

我认为工作意味着他所说的财富,这是一个试图沟通相同的核心真理但“设计是它是如何工作的”是一个更好的声明,苹果的哲学Talk of a “product’s essence” (Isaacson’s words) or “the fundamental soul of a man-made creation” (Jobs’s) only serves to separate, conceptually, the art of design from the cold hard science of engineering只有五个字,“设计是它是如何工作的”表达简洁和准确,工程应该可以的艺术设计的一部分。

Design and engineering are, indeed, often in opposition — engineering constraints affect design; design goals affect engineering tradeoffs但它们不是独立的努力哲学问题是哪一个的一个子集席勒告诉艾萨克森,乔布斯重返苹果公司之前,设计发生在工程过程的结束在后,工程成为了设计过程的一个组成部分这一转变使世界上所有的差异。

艾萨克森并不理解这一点,和他讲的天线门事件说明了这个完美同样,aforequoted从26章

On occasion this could backfire, such as when Jobs and Ive insisted on using a solid piece of brushed aluminum for the edge of the iPhone 4 even when the engineers worried that it would compromise the antenna.

iPhone 4的边缘(现在4 s)天线。2这并不是由刷铝bead-blasted不锈钢。3.钢的工程问题因此不是边缘会妥协天线,而是外部天线将接收妥协权衡是移动天线向外留下更多的空间在里面——更大的电池和其他组件的空间,并允许设备的稀释剂艾萨克森油漆工作,我是只关心如何看起来和感觉,与工程师担心它如何工作事实是,设计它如何工作。

艾萨克森在39章回到这个故事,一段名为“天线门:设计vs工程”(这部分工程作为标题再一次位置单独的从设计,而不是部分设计):

In many consumer product companies, there’s tension between the designers, who want to make a product look beautiful, and the engineers, who need to make sure it fulfills its functional requirementsAt Apple, where Jobs pushed both design and engineering to the edge, that tension was even greater.

书中没有更好的说明了艾萨克森的漠视史蒂夫·乔布斯的哲学“设计”意味着什么。

认真的软件

艾萨克森,它似乎很清楚,不信任的工作这很好但是而不是使用不信任推回去,问的问题,他不是简单地转向其他人关于早期的苹果和原始的Mac,艾萨克森转向。的设计师Andy Hertzfeld这本书不受,因为Hertzfeld既诚实又有一个看似非凡的记忆但这之前被巧妙地记载历史——尤其是,没有惊喜,Hertzfeld自己,与他民间传说的网站和优秀的书编制从这个网站,革命在硅谷

Far less documented are the subsequent stages of Jobs’s career: the NeXT years and his return to Apple作为一个与工作这些年来,艾萨克森反复转向比尔盖茨。

艾萨克森在书中多次提到,乔布斯的著名的“现实扭曲场”搜索这个词在iBooks版30返回结果,包括第11章的标题在这一章中,艾萨克森写道:

To some people, calling it a reality distortion field was just a clever way to say that Jobs tended to lieBut it was in fact a more complex form of dissemblingHe would assert something — be it a fact about world history or a recounting of who suggested an idea at a meeting — without even considering the truth.

I.e., Jobs had the ability to make people believe whatever he said, whether it was true or not但并不是每个人都:

But Gates was one person who was resistant to Jobs’s reality distortion field, and as a result he decided not to create software tailored for the NeXT platform.

I think Isaacson viewed Jobs’s RDF as something very much akin to the Jedi mind trick — something that worked against most people, but not those with strong minds这可能是真的但我认为艾萨克森很关心自己被“耐药”,他选择了治疗的工作告诉他是错误的。

同样,怀疑是好的但是而不是做研究来验证工作版本的事件,了解事实,争端乔布斯,他只是转向来源他信任,像Hertzfeld和盖茨但是盖茨是一个奇怪的选择信任,因为他有一个明确的利益冲突对乔布斯的公司竞争,在个人层面上说,他是乔布斯的唯一竞争对手的历史地位。

然后会发生什么,反复,乔布斯告诉艾萨克森的东西真正的,但艾萨克森并不相信它,然后,他引用了别人,像比尔盖茨,说的东西反驳,艾萨克森让那句话是事实。

一个例子是最重要的是别人23章,“第二次降临”,对苹果的故事1996年收购NeXT,乔布斯的回归上下文,当时吉尔·阿梅里奥已经决定,苹果需要到外面的公司继承了经典的Mac OS选项:收购或下,或许可Sun Solaris或微软的Windows NT(Licensing Windows NT was, according to Isaacson, what Amelio favored early on — which goes to show just how profoundly fucked Apple was at the time.) On page 302, Isaacson writes:

After informing Gassée that Apple was buying NeXT, Amelio had what turned out to be an even more uncomfortable task: telling Bill Gates”他进入轨道,”阿梅里奥回忆道Gates found it ridiculous, but perhaps not surprising, that Jobs had pulled off this coup“Do you really think Steve Jobs has anything there?” Gates asked Amelio“I know this technology, it’s nothing but warmed-over UNIX, and you’ll never be able to make it work on your machines.” Gates, like Jobs, had a way of working himself up, and he did so now: “Don’t you understand that Steve doesn’t know anything about technology? He’s just a super salesmanI can’t believe you’re making such a stupid decision… He doesn’t know anything about engineering, and 99% of what he says and thinks is wrong你到底在购买垃圾?”

唯一有趣的这句话是,盖茨是如此惊人,完全错误的。但是艾萨克森从来没有分出来。

在盖茨的国防,上述anti-NeXT谩骂是二手归功于他艾萨克森从吉尔·阿梅里奥的画在最前线但盖茨所做的对艾萨克森说,在今天,描绘了一幅更精确的图景下一段在书中写道:

Years later, when I raised it with him, Gates did not recall being that upsetThe purchase of NeXT, he argued, did not really give Apple a new operating system“Amelio paid a lot for NeXT, and let’s be frank, the NeXT OS was never really used.” Instead the purchase ended up bringing in Avie Tevanian, who could help the existing Apple operating system evolve so that it eventually incorporated the kernel of the NeXT technologyGates knew that the deal was destined to bring Jobs back to power“But that was a twist of fate,” he said“What they ended up buying was a guy who most people would not have predicted would be a great CEO, because he didn’t have much experience at it, but he was a brilliant guy with great design taste and great engineering tasteHe suppressed his craziness enough to get himself appointed interim CEO.”

所以结束这部分的章,没有额外的评论从艾萨克森或任何其他来源以上只是左站作为一个描述没有知识的读者,谁会相信艾萨克森,将左相信上面的苹果的下一个收购的一个精确的描述。

事实上,这是完全错误的NeXTStep不是UNIX“温暖”苹果的确得到下一个在Mac的硬件上运行的操作系统Mac OS X 10.0 Mac和未来技术的混合,但它显然是下一个系统与Mac技术集成,而不是相反iOS系统,权力的iPhone和iPad NeXTStep的直接后裔即使最初的iPod,这不是基于未来技术,使用下开创的分层导航栏视图的概念。

盖茨使它听起来好像苹果的下一个收购是有效的只有人才收购它实际上是一个人才和技术收购,和当时的技术现在是iOS和Mac OS X的基础。

几乎是不可能夸大多么错误的比尔•盖茨(Bill Gates)在这里,但艾萨克森提出了盖茨的真相这并不是一件小事为史蒂夫·乔布斯的传记作者错了乔布斯的职业生涯很长,丰富、多样的,但是如果你想减少他毕生的心血,简而言之,正是艾萨克森,通灵盖茨,所以完全误解了:下创建的软件系统,然后由苹果公司不断扩展和完善。

下的软件是把乔布斯回到苹果它拯救了Mac平台,然后增长Mac平台今天它是iPhone和iPad的基础下一个市场做斗争,但他们的软件是一个漫长的选择,最终得到了回报可以说它花了20年的繁荣,但史蒂夫·乔布斯似乎从未失去信心或信心。

不仅仅是艾萨克森是错误的的东西; it’s that he was wrong about the most important thing in Jobs’s career有一个长达数十年的故事弧的软件系统开始下萨克森完全错过。


阅读有关的工作之后,人们很容易屈服于一个Jobsian-style二进制的世界观Total shit, or the greatest thing ever; five stars, or zero stars你可以了,看看我的批评谴责艾萨克森的书总屎,零星星这将是一个错误。史蒂夫•乔布斯不是文学,但这是一本好书,但是唉几个漏洞和严重的错误。

艾萨克森包括关于严重的软件人Alan Kay引用自己的硬件,但似乎并没有留意它,或者认识到,它完美地描述了乔布斯的职业生涯并解释了苹果产品的巨大成功。

注意,我这里抱怨不是艾萨克森不够恭顺这本书不是一个圣徒传记是值得称赞的个人的东西——文档工作的(和他的残忍人才残忍),他的脾气,他倾向于要求自己他人的想法,这不是问题艾萨克森处理,在这方面他的报告和我们知道的一切男人嘲弄我的抱怨是关于彻底的技术错误,让男人的工作错误的设计过程中,得到的产品,软件的中心——艾萨克森简单地忽略了船。

你可以了解更多关于乔布斯的工作通过阅读罗伯·沃克的2003年纽约时报杂志比通过阅读艾萨克森的书,但即使这样我们仍然希望任何苹果的产品背后的故事后,iPod艾萨克森的书很可能是乔布斯的个人生活的定义资源——童年,青春,怪癖,残忍,脾气和情绪爆发但至于乔布斯的工作,艾萨克森让读者深刻和误导是悲剧性的。

艾萨克森的故事给了我们一个混蛋但是这个世界到处都是混蛋我们需要的是一个男人的故事谁发起了很多卓越的产品和公司建立了一个神奇的和独特的。


  1. 众所周知,在1997年回归苹果,乔布斯用ThinkPad OpenStep运行直到,据推测,苹果运到一个强力笔记本电脑遇到了他的标准。↩︎

  2. 迂腐,边缘是天线,复数。↩︎

  3. In Chapter 39, Isaacson writes, “In order to serve as an antenna, the steel rim had to have a tiny gap.” There, he gets the material and purpose of the edge correct但这只是显示差这本书的编辑和核查事实的技术细节。↩︎