原生应用程序是Web的一部分

克里斯托弗·米姆斯在华尔街日报上写道,“The Web Is Dying; Apps Are Killing It“:

Everything about apps feels like a win for users — they are faster and easier to use than what came beforeBut underneath all that convenience is something sinister: the end of the very openness that allowed Internet companies to grow into some of the most powerful or important companies of the 21st century.

我不敢相信有人还在2014年写这篇文章用户喜欢应用程序,开发人员喜欢应用程序 - 唯一不喜欢应用程序的人是那些不了解应用程序并不真正反对开放互联网的专家他们只是打开互联网服务的优秀客户Instagram多年来甚至没有网络界面,但iOS和Android的原生应用客户端并没有锁定任何东西如果他们只有一个Web浏览器客户端界面,他们的后端就像它本来一样开放他们不会受欢迎。

四年前我在O'Reilly的Web 2.0会议上谈到了这个问题,题为“Apple和Open Web:一个爱情故事”它的主旨是本机iOS应用程序(以及适用于Android,Mac OS X,Windows和其他所有内容的原生应用程序)与“网络”不相反他们生活在网络之上一个新图层They are alternatives to websites that run in web browsers他们只是更好的客户有两个大的四字母“H”首字母缩略词从一开始就为网络提供动力:HTML(客户端)和HTTP(网络协议)原生应用程序只是在Web浏览器中运行的HTML的替代方案(许多本机应用程序仍然使用嵌入在应用程序本身中的HTML Web视图来呈现其界面的部分)但是,几乎所有本机应用程序都使用HTTP / S进行网络连接。

这只是一个概念上的简化我们只是在操作系统中运行应用程序(两个级别),而不是在操作系统内运行的浏览器中运行的Web应用程序(三个抽象级别)更简单,更轻松,更优雅。1

Mims继续:

Take that most essential of activities for e-commerce: accepting credit cardsWhen Amazon.com made its debut on the Web, it had to pay a few percentage points in transaction feesBut Apple takes 30% of every transaction conducted within an app sold through its app store, and “very few businesses in the world can withstand that haircut,” says Chris Dixon, a venture capitalist at Andreessen Horowitz.

这显然是假的即使有Mims自己的例子,亚马逊在坐下来写这篇文章的几分钟之前,我使用亚马逊的iPhone应用程序 - 通过Apple的App Store分发的应用程序 - 来购买一些东西我将商品添加到购物车中,使用我已接近二十年历史的亚马逊帐户登录,我就完成了Apple不会看到该交易的一分钱不是一个。

如果亚马逊开始在他们的应用程序中使用Apple Pay,那么Apple每花一美元就会得到一分钱 - 但这些便士将来自我的信用卡公司,而不是亚马逊。

通过原生应用程序销售的零售商不向Apple支付任何费用,更不用说30%苹果收取30%的费用是为了购买应用内数字内容我不能在Kindle应用程序或亚马逊MP3音乐中购买Kindle书籍,因为这样 - 但我可以从亚马逊购买其他所有东西。

Web旨在公开信息It was so devoted to sharing above all else that it didn’t include any way to pay for things — something some of its early architects regret to this day, since it forced the Web to在广告上生存

说这个人用相当严格的付费墙为网站写作。

并且自由地公开信息是网络继续蓬勃发展的地方(我说,我发布在可自由访问的网站上写的所有内容的本地应用程序支持者)如果某些东西作为Web应用程序运行良好,那就让它成为一个Web应用程序(有一些很棒的网络应用程序,非常适合它们。)如果某些东西作为原生应用程序运行得更好,那就让它成为一个原生应用程序。

The Web wasn’t perfect, but it created a commons where people could exchange information and goodsIt forced companies to build technology that was explicitly designed to be compatible with competitors’ technologyMicrosoft’s Web browser had to faithfully render Apple’s websiteIf it didn’t, consumers would use another one, such as Firefox or Google’s Chrome, which has since taken over.

所以让我直截了当微软的Internet Explorer“明确设计为与竞争对手的技术兼容”我不能等到Jeffrey Zeldman读到这篇文章。来自Zeldman的2007年商业周刊简介

This concept may seem obvious today, but during the Browser Wars of the 1990s, Microsoft and Netscape each claimed close to 50% of the market, and their browsers were almost entirely incompatibleIt wasn’t uncommon to type in a URL and find that the site didn’t workCompanies eager to open their virtual doors had to invest in multiple versions of their sitesIn short, it was a bad situation for businesses and consumers alikeYet the browser makers were behaving as many software companies do — by trying to out-feature the competition with the introduction of new proprietary technologies.

回到Mims:

“In a lot of tech processes, as things decline a little bit, the way the world reacts is that it tends to accelerate that decline,” says Mr迪克森“If you go to any Internet startup or large company, they have large teams focused on creating very high quality native apps, and they tend to de-prioritize the mobile Web by comparison.”

许多行业观察家认为这很好Ben Thompson, an independent tech and mobile analyst, told me he sees the dominance of apps as the “natural state” for software.

我不得不同意The history of computing is companies trying to use their market power to shut out rivals, even when it’s bad for innovation and the consumer.

How has the rise of native mobile apps been anything but a renaissance of innovation? I’d argue we’ve seen far more innovation in the iPhone era (2007-2014) than from 2000-2007我看不出有人会说我们已经看过了革新We used to print driving directions from mapping websites; now we get audible turn-by-turn directions on our devices移动前网络主要是关于大多数人的消费:阅读文章,观看视频,购买东西在今天的世界里,每个人都在创造和分享他们自己的内容 - 从照片到视频到他们的想法和观察Mims声称原生移动应用程序“对创新和消费者不利”,而世界各地的消费者正在使用原生移动应用程序进行非常创新的事情。

这并不意味着网络将会消失Facebook and Google still rely on it to furnish a stream of content that can be accessed from within their appsBut even the Web of documents and news items could go awayFacebook has announced plans to host publishers’ work within Facebook itself, leaving the Web nothing but a curiosity, a relic haunted by hobbyists.

在这里,Mims最会背叛他对客户端软件和“网络”的混淆为了争论,想象一个所有原生应用程序都消失的世界我们通过Safari,Chrome,Mozilla和IE等网络浏览器完成所有工作的世界在那个世界里,Facebook可以做同样的事情 - “主持出版商在Facebook内部的工作”完全一样的事情Facebook在这里施加的控制与本机移动应用程序无关他们已经总是在发布到Facebook的大多数内容中锁定了非Facebook用户(像我一样)现在他们只是在谈论托管更多仅限Facebook的内容。

关于“开放”和“封闭”的争论常常转化为无法解决的交谈,双方对什么有不同的定义打开关闭实际意思但真正开放平台的奇怪之处在于它的开放性允许在它之上构建封闭的东西粗略地说,这就是为什么GNU / GPL软件不像BSD软件那样“开放”的原因(以及为什么Richard Stallman完全拒绝“开源”一词)If you expand your view of “the web” from merely that which renders inside the confines of a web browser to instead encompass all network traffic sent over HTTP/S, the explosive growth of native mobile apps is just another stage in the growth of the web本机应用程序远非杀死它,而是使开放式网络变得更加强大。


  1. Chrome OS is an attempt to simplify things a different way: web apps running inside a web browser that presents itself to the user as the OS. ↩︎