老虎详情

有关Mac OS X 10.4的注释,注释和观察。
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Press-and-Hold for Dashboard and Exposé Keyboard Shortcuts 

对Exposé和Dashboard等半模态功能使用键盘快捷键的通常或至少是显而易见的方法是:

  1. 冲击的关键(例如仪表板F12。)
  2. 使用模式。
  3. 完成后再次按键。

它最终会有第二种使用这些快捷方式的方法:按住:

  1. 按住键。
  2. 使用模式。
  3. 完成后释放密钥。

我不打算认为这节省了任何时间或精力,但自从我学会了这个技巧以来,每当我调用Dashboard和Exposé的应用程序窗口模式时,我一直在使用它I mean, if you’re going to be using some Dashboard widget for a while, sure, you’ll want to use the regular “tap the key” mechanism — but if you just want to glance at one or more status-displaying widgets (e.g天气),按住机制感觉恰到好处值得注意的是,Exposé快捷方式也适用于Mac OS X 10.3。

(谢谢Dave Giunta提示。)


Pass Command-Line Arguments to AppleScript Scripts 

命令行osascript工具允许您从命令行执行AppleScript脚本在Mac OS X 10.0到10.3中,您可以传递给唯一的参数osascript是要执行的脚本在Tiger中,您现在可以传递参数以传递给脚本本身。

osascript手册页:

Any arguments following the script will be passed as a list of strings to
the direct parameter of the ``run'' handlerFor example:

      a.scpt:
      on run argv
          return "hello, " & item 1 of argv & "."
      end run

      % osascript a.scpt world
      hello, world.

(谢谢MacOSXHints.com。)


Built-In Support for Advanced OpenType Features 

Mac OS X长期以来一直支持对高级排版功能的内置支持 - 例如真正的小帽子,自动连线,旧式人物等——在AAT字体。AAT代表Apple Advanced Typography,这些字体的几个船与Mac OS X,包括霍弗勒文本,Didot,Zapfino。

使用ATSUI(用于Unicode映像的Apple Type Services)进行文本呈现的应用程序可以获得对这些高级排版功能的支持,包括Pages,Keynote以及几乎任何使用标准Cocoa文本编辑字段的应用程序。

这一切都很好,但对严肃型用户没什么用处,因为AAT字体并非由Apple以外的公司广泛生产具有内置高级印刷功能的字体的事实标准格式是OpenType字体

好消息是,从Tiger开始,Mac OS X现在可以自动将OpenType功能映射到AAT功能这意味着如果你安装了OpenType字体,他们现在“有用”,应用程序之前提供高级排版功能只有AAT字体如果您安装了任何OpenType字体(例如,Adobe Creative Suite中包含几个优秀的OpenType字体),您可以在TextEdit中尝试这些功能。打开“字体”面板,然后从“字体”面板的齿轮菜单中打开“排版”调板。

排版调色板是上下文聪明,只显示当前字体的特性苹果不支持尽可能多的OpenType功能作为Adobe自己的应用程序(使用自己的跨平台代码呈现文本),但这是一个非常好的开始。

(谢谢马克西蒙森,Eric Allison和Andreas Bachofen的提示。)


WaitingForLoginWindow 

回想一下提前入境在此列表中,在启动过程中,Mac OS X不再显示状态消息,告诉您何时启动哪些进程It ends up that in Tiger, the progress bar you see while booting is a complete sham — it’s just something to look at while you’re waiting for the loginwindow process to start(CF查尔斯米勒的“安慰剂迷你图案“如果你很好奇为什么Apple会打扰这个虚假的进度条。”进度窗口由恰当命名的WaitingForLoginWindow进程显示。

(它甚至由手册页记录:类型男子WaitingForLoginWindow在命令行提示符。)

进度条的速度没有衡量任何东西 - 它只是猜测登录窗口准备好了多长时间当loginwindow出现时,它会终止WaitingForLoginWindow进程当它退出时,WaitingForLoginWindow在此处存储它在文本文件中运行的秒数:

/var/db/loginwindow.boottime

The next time it runs, WaitingForLoginWindow uses the number of seconds stored in this file to set the duration and pace of its progress bar animation. Examine the contents of this file to see how long WaitingForLoginWindow ran the last time you booted(在我的iBook上它是“20.711155”,但是下次我重新启动时,它下降到“4.642473”;在PowerMac G5上,它通常是1-3秒。)

有趣的是,您可以随时启动WaitingForLoginWindow使用终端,执行:

的/ usr /的libexec / WaitingForLoginWindow

向上弹出“正在启动Mac OS X ...”进度窗口它是无害的,毫无意义,而是一种乐趣要退出,您可以输入killall WaitingForLoginWindow在命令行。

当你与它玩耍的终端,WaitingForLoginWindow不写loginwindow.boottime文件,因为它需要管理员权限才能这样做(如果你用它启动它sudo /var/db/loginwindow.boottime但是,它将其运行持续时间写入此文件。)如果更改了该文件中的秒数/var/db/loginwindow.boottime文件,您可以更改下次启动时进度条移动的速度这对启动实际需要多长时间没有影响 - 它只是改变了进度条的速度。

(感谢Matt Deatherage和2005年5月22日的问题MDJ。)


Cosmetic Improvements to AppleScript Dialog Boxes 

提供的各种对话框中定义的用户交互套件标准添加OSAX都收到了化妆品,和在某些情况下功能,改进。

For example, consider the显示对话框命令这是一个简短的例子,用于模拟BBEdit的PHP语法检查脚本中的错误对话框:

tell application "BBEdit"
  set msg to "Parse error: parse error in df_banner.inc on line 6"
  display dialog "PHP " & msg with icon caution ¬
      buttons {"OK"} default button 1
end tell

在Mac OS X 10.3,结果对话框看起来像这样:

Mac OS X 10.3中的“显示对话框”框

在Mac OS X 10.4上,生成的对话框如下所示:

Mac OS X 10.4中的“显示对话框”框

最大的区别是图标更大,看起来更好,但你也可以看到Aqua的条纹随着每个主要版本的不断消失。

AppleScript 1.10还引入了一个新的显示警报类似于命令显示对话框命令,但使用略有不同的语法,并提供了一些其他选项主要区别在于它允许使用粗体标题字符串和单独的解释性消息。

tell application "BBEdit"
  set msg to "Parse error: parse error in df_banner.inc on line 6"
  display alert "PHP Syntax Error" message msg as warning
end tell

它的输出看起来更像是标准的Mac OS X对话框:

来自Mac OS X 10.4的“显示警报”框

(该显示警报command isn’t actually new; it has been a part of AppleScript-Studio since its inception你现在可以使用的是什么新东西显示警报在任何脚本中,而不仅仅是在Studio应用程序中。)

文本编辑字段使用的显示对话框命令现在使用现代的Mac OS X文本渲染引擎而不是不推荐使用QuickDraw例程考虑以下脚本:

display dialog "URL:" default answer "http://www.gazogooz.com/" ¬
    buttons {"Cancel", "Grab With HTTP Headers", "Grab"} ¬
    default button "Grab"

在10.3,这产生:

使用Mac OS X 10.3上的“默认答案”选项,带有三个按钮。

在10.4,它看起来像这样:

使用Mac OS X 10.4上的“默认答案”选项,带有三个按钮。

Note also that previously, when you specified three buttons in a call to显示对话框, all three buttons would be the same width, determined by the length of the longest of the three labelsThis produced unsightly results whenever the button labels were of varying lengths, and in some cases, as shown above, it resulted in the longest label being truncated.

A nice functional improvement in AppleScript 1.10 is that when using the listbox provided by the从列表中选择command, you can now use type-ahead to select an item in the list.

有关TigerScript上AppleScript新功能的更多详细信息,请参阅AppleScript 1.10发行说明


Extraneous Returns Stripped From Text Pasted Into Single-Line Fields 

作为Pierre Igot在他的博客上指出

For a long time, when I was filling out Web forms in Safari, I had to deal with the fact that, when I had copied text from another application and tried to paste it into a single-line text entry field in the Web form, if I had accidentally included the return character at the end of the line of text in the selection before I had copied it to the Clipboard, then when I pasted the contents of the Clipboard into the single-line text entry field, Safari would also insert the return character at the end of the line of text and make the single-line text field “scroll” down (even though it doesn’t have a vertical scroll bar, since it’s a single-line text entry field).

The end effect would be that, after pasting the contents of the Clipboard into the field, the field would look like it was still empty, because Safari would actually be showing the second line of text after the carriage return, which indeed would be emptyIt was weirdYou could still fix the problem by simply pressing the Delete key once after pasting the text, which would delete the return character and put the focus back on the first — and only — line of text in the field但它仍然很奇怪。

Starting with Safari 2.0 (and 1.3 for Mac OS X 10.3.9), this is fixed. Any trailing returns are now automatically stripped when pasting text into single-line text fields in web pages(Safari has always done this when pasting into the Location field in the Address Bar.)

Pierre also points out that it’s not just trailing returns that get stripped — if you paste multiple non-empty lines into a single-line text field, only the first line is actually pasted.


Widgets Only Use Standard Font Smoothing 

No matter which style of font smoothing you’ve chosen in the Appearance panel of System Preferences, Dashboard Widgets always render text using “Standard” font smoothingThis means if you’ve chosen Light, Medium, or Strong font smoothing (or if you’ve chosen Automatic and are using a flat panel display, in which case the system uses Medium), text looks different in Widgets than it does elsewhere.

This is especially noticeable in the Dictionary widget, where the Baskerville typeface looks weak and wispy, and the italics are barely legibleWhereas in the Dictionary application, Baskerville looks great.

Compare the following screenshots, snapped with my font smoothing preference set to Medium(If you’re using a CRT display to view these screenshots, the text in the Dictionary application might look like it has colored fringes; that’s because the Light / Medium / Strong smoothing options are intended for use on flat-panel LCD displays.)

字典小部件:

“词典”小部件中呈现的文本的屏幕截图

The Dictionary application (with the font size decreased by one click, so as to match the size used by the widget):

在Dictionary应用程序中呈现的文本的屏幕截图。

对上述“博客”定义的简要介绍:The italicized portion is not part of the definition itself; it’s example usage.)

One explanation for this might be that it’s because each widget process is aDock的子进程, and the Dock does the same thing with the white-text-with-drop-shadow text it displays when you hover the mouse over an icon: it’s always rendered with Standard font smoothingBut even so, this raises the question as to why the Dock ignores this preference.

奇怪的是,Widget Bar上方的“More Widgets ...”按钮rendered using Light / Medium / Strong font smoothing, but the widget names at the bottom of the Widget Bar are not.

Regardless of the explanation, the end result is that widgets do not look as nice as they could on flat-panel displays, which is really odd considering that “looking cool” is at least half the appeal of Dashboard.

(谢谢Jussi Hagman)。


GIF Creation 

现在Unisys公司的专利LZW压缩算法已经过期,软件现在可以创建GIF图像文件而无需向Unisys支付许可费基于QuickTime的应用程序(如“预览”)现在允许您保存GIF(You could always view GIF files in QuickTime-based apps, but you couldn’t generate them.)


Safari Now Supports Proper Text-Editing Shortcuts 

当您在浏览器窗口中编辑文本时,Safari现在支持大多数标准Mac文本编辑快捷方式例如Command-Shift-←/ Command-Shift-→用于从插入点到行的开头/结尾选择文本。

但是,在以前版本的Safari中,这两个快捷方式用于在选项卡之间切换(“选择下一个选项卡”和“选择上一个选项卡”菜单项)从Safari 2.0(以及适用于Mac OS X 10.3.9的Safari 1.3)开始,用于在选项卡之间切换的快捷方式已更改为Command- {和Command-},这在美国键盘方式输入Command-Shift -[和Command-Shift -]。

但是,当输入焦点不在文本字段上时,Safari仍支持切换选项卡的旧快捷方式。

许多人似乎对这种变化,但是苹果是正确的事情要做或者,也许更好的说法:Safari曾经使用菜单键快捷键的标准文本编辑快捷方式是错误的如果你真的不能适应变化,您可以编辑菜单快捷键在键盘和鼠标面板在系统偏好。


‘Automatic’ Font-Smoothing Style 

Mac OS X提供了两个主要的屏幕字体平滑算法抗锯齿)自10.2起当您想到抗锯齿时,“标准”算法完全符合您的想法 - 在白色背景上渲染黑色文本时,它使用灰色阴影来平滑字母形状的曲线和线条第二种算法,子像素渲染,是基于每个像素的液晶显示器由三个分配:红、绿、蓝使用子像素渲染的技巧是,不使用灰色像素的阴影来平滑白色背景上的黑色文本,而是使用红色,绿色和蓝色的阴影。

Mac OS X提供三种版本的子像素渲染:Light,Medium和Strong介质被描述为“最适合平板显示器”,但事实上所有这三个仅用于平板显示器 - 子像素渲染技巧仅适用于LCD。

(有关更多 - 更多 - 关于这些算法之间的差异,请参阅我的文章“豹文本呈现“自2003年11月起,Mac OS X 10.3发布后不久。)

我的邮件淹没了从读者相信老虎,苹果已经大大改变了文本反锯齿的屏幕上的方式事实并非如此更改的是,Apple在“系统偏好设置”的“外观”面板中为字体平滑弹出菜单添加了一个新选项:“自动 - 最适合主显示”,现在是此首选项的默认设置On CRTs, Automatic uses the Standard algorithm; on LCDs, it uses Medium.

那些注意到文本在屏幕上呈现方式有很大差异的人正在使用平板显示器并将此首选项设置为“自动”以前,即使您使用的是平板显示器,默认的字体平滑首选项也是“标准”。

我碰巧认为这种改变很好,为平板用户制作了更好看的屏幕文字然而,这显然是非常主观的,这就是为什么Apple为这种偏好提供了几种选择。


Dock Icons Accept Clippings via Drag and Drop 

你终于可以拖拽图标在码头上剪下来(在以前版本的Mac OS X中,无法在Dock中获取应用程序图标以接受包含剪辑的拖动。)这包括URL剪辑:

  • 您可以将URL拖到Safari,它将在新窗口中打开该URL。
  • You can drag the URL for an XML feed to NetNewsWire 2, and it will create a new subscription to that feed.
  • You can drag text to Safari, and it will perform a Google query on the text you dragged.
  • You can drag any text clipping (regular text, URL, etc.) to BBEdit, and it will open a new document containing that text.

(谢谢Jesper埃里克布莱尔。)


Keyboard Shortcuts in Dashboard 

把鼠标光标悬停在任何运行部件和按下选择键然后,您可以立即关闭该窗口小部件,而无需显示窗口小部件栏(Thanks to Scot Jandly.)

要切换窗口小部件栏的显示,请使用Command- =(等号)(谢谢丹尼尔出身低微的人。)

[更新:来自非QWERTY键盘布局的用户的电子邮件表明显示窗口小部件栏的快捷方式是Command以及Delete左侧的键那是美国的“=”键盘,但在法国AZERTY布局上,它是“ - ”(破折号)键即快捷方式与键相关联,而不是与字符相关联(谢谢大卫拉塔皮)]。

要刷新最前面的小部件,请使用Command-R。


Widget Bar Penalizes Double-Clicking 

[更新:Apple fixed this in a subsequent 10.4.x update; double-clicking an icon in the Widget Dock now launches a single instance of the widget.]

An awful lot of casual Mac users are more or less hopelessly confused about when they need to double-click something to “open” it(This applies to Windows users too, for that matter.) What tends to happen is that when they’re learning to use the computer, they’re tripped up by the entire concept of double-clicking — they either don’t click fast enough, or their coordination is poor and they move the mouse too much between the first and second clicksEventually they get the hang of it, but they never quite figure out the rules for when they need to double-click versus when a single-click will do, so what they end up doing is double-clicking just about everything.

然而,总的来说,这种混乱很少发生For example, you only need to single-click links in a web browser, but if you double-click them instead (as my father does), it doesn’t make any differenceSame goes for the Mac OS X Dock; a single-click launches an app, but a double-click does the same thing.

仪表板小部件栏不是这样Each click on a widget counts. Click once to open an instance of a widgetClick twice and you get two instancesMaking matters much worse is that each instance of the widget opens in the exact same position on screen, so the most-recently-launched instance completely obscures the others, which means it容貌like you’ve only launched one instance of the widget you double-clicked, even though you launched two.

Only when you move or close this widget will you discover that you’ve had another instance running underneath all along, which for most people will generate some measure of surprise and confusion.

Apple应该做的事情来解决这个问题:

  1. Double-clicks in the Widget Bar should launch a single instance of a widgetIf you really want to launch two instances of a widget, just wait a second or two between clicks, or use drag-and-dropA double-click on a widget in the Bar almost certainly means “open this once”.

  2. When you open multiple instances of a single widget, each subsequent instance should be positioned on screen with a small diagonal offset from the previous instance so they don’t completely overlap — just like when you open a new document in any normal application.


Kill the Dock to Restart Dashboard 

每个仪表板小组件都作为单独的进程运行你可以在Activity Monitor中看到这个(或者从命令行,最佳)There is no master “Dashboard” process; instead, the parent of every widget process is the DockDock还负责Widget Bar因此,如果要重新启动整个仪表板环境,只需使用活动监视器(或从命令行,)Dock将自动重新启动,以及Dashboard环境的新实例。

没有主“仪表板”进程,并且Dock实际上是每个正在运行的Dashboard小部件的父级,有助于解释Dock中仪表板图标的奇怪行为您可以在Dock“运行”时将其拖离Dock,即使Dashboard仍然可用且任何正在运行的小部件仍在运行,它也会失效将任何其他正在运行的应用程序拖出Dock,它会在您放下它后立即重新弹回That’s because the Dashboard Dock icon is a sham; it’s just a proxy — something you can click on to activate Dashboard mode, and a place to put Dock menu commands related to DashboardDashboard Dock图标与任何小部件当前是否“正在运行”无关 - 这使得它与Dock中的每个其他应用程序图标完全不同。

如果你确实从Dock中删除了它,你可以通过拖动“Dashboard.app”应用程序将它放回去/应用/这就产生了这种Dashboard.app以某种方式“是”Dashboard小部件运行时环境的错觉但事实并非如此请记住,运行小部件归Dock所有,而不是单独的Dashboard进程事实上,Dashboard.app的包标识符是“com.apple.dashboardlauncher”,这个名字很贴切这不是一个保持运行的常规应用程序:当您启动它时,它会切换到仪表板模式,然后退出同样,您可以通过活动监视器看到这一点 - 这就是Dashboard没有出现在Command-Tab切换器中的原因。

如果您只想刷新窗口小部件栏的内容以反映您的任何更改/库/小工具/要么〜/库/小工具/文件夹,您只需单击窗口小部件栏中的左/右按钮即可浏览列表Doing so seems to pick up new/removed widgets但是,如果您有足够宽的显示,以便所有已安装的小部件都适合一个屏幕,那么这将无济于事。


Command-Return Displays Form Results in New Tab 

在几乎任何网页表单字段中,您可以使用Command-Return让Safari在新选项卡中显示结果通过滚动到本页底部并使用搜索表单在万博manbetx贴吧上试试吧In previous versions of Safari, you could use Command-Return to open a new tab when using the the location and Google search fields in the address bar, but the ability to use this from web page form fields is new to Safari 2.0 and version 1.3 on Mac OS X 10.3.9(感谢Sage Olson。)


PNG现在默认格式截图

使用系统的内置键盘快捷键进行屏幕捕获时(Command-Shift-3捕获屏幕,Command-Shift-4捕获选定区域),输出文件现在保存为PNG在Mac OS X 10.2和10.3中,这些截图保存为PDFPNG是一个更好的选择(当然,如果你使用Snapz Pro X.我做的,你可以选择从PNG,PDF,TIFF,JPEG,皮克特人,GIF,BMP,PSD)。


‘dict://’ URL Scheme 

Tiger’s new Dictionary app registers with Launch Services as the default handler for the字典://网址方案The idea, I presume, is that one should be able to construct URLs that direct Dictionary to look up wordsDocumentation for this, however, seems non-existent. There’s no mention of the字典://URL scheme anywhere in Dictionary’s help book.

RFC 2229defines the dictionary server protocol, section 5 of which pertains to “URL Specification”它开始:

The DICT URL scheme is used to refer to definitions or word lists available using the DICT protocol:

dict://<user>;<auth>@<host>:<port>/d:<word>:<database>:<n>
dict://<user>;<auth>@<host>:<port>/m:<word>:<database>:<strat>:<n>

The “/d” syntax specifies the DEFINE command (section 3.2), whereas the “/m” specifies the MATCH command (section 3.3).

部分或全部“<用户>; <AUTH> @“,”:<端口>“,”<数据库>“,”<STRAT>”, and “<n>“可以省略。

DICT协议, which is the main subject of the RFC, is about querying a dictionary server over the networkThat’s not what Apple’s Dictionary does — the data source for Dictionary is a local database, not a server on the networkSo most of the tokens in the URL scheme defined by the RFC aren’t applicable:<用户><验证]><主机><口>不需要。

然而,词典似乎忽略了所有这些即便是 ”/ d:” and “/米:” actions, for “define” and “match”, which according to the RFC aren’t optional, aren’t supported by Dictionary.

So far as I can tell, the only URL format accepted by Dictionary is in the form:

字典:/// <字>

请注意,它需要三个斜杠,而不是两个斜杠例如:

字典:///用具

看起来很简单But what stinks is that the query must be an exact match如果你拼错了单词,那么查找会无声地失败The only thing that happens for a failed look-up from a URL is that the Dictionary app activates例如,这不会工作:

字典:/// insoucient

因为“insouciant”拼写错误In the regular Dictionary user interface, if you make a misspelling, it usually susses out what you meant and offers a suggestionType “insoucient” in the query field and you’ll be asked: “No entries foundDid you mean?”, with “insouciant” selectedAll you need to do is hit Return to see the definition of “insouciant”.

It’d be nice to see a future update to Dictionary offer suggestions for queries that don’t match any entries in the database.

更新:Several readers report that this feature doesn’t seem to work at allThe problem is that even if you spell the search term correctly, these字典://format URLs only work if the Dictionary app is already running如果不是,打开一个字典://URL will launch Dictionary, but nothing will get looked up.


Canadian English Keyboard Layout 

Tiger包括几种新的键盘布局,其中一种用于加拿大英语它似乎与美国完全相同键盘布局,唯一的区别是,当您打开输入菜单时(通过“系统偏好设置”中“国际”面板的“输入菜单”部分),您将获得加拿大国旗图标而不是美国军人的)星章和臂章(谢谢安德鲁·邓宁。)


仪表板滚动条吸

所有具有滚动内容视图的Apple Dashboard小部件都使用奇怪的月球滚动条,既不看起来也不像普通的Aqua滚动条您可以单击并拖动电梯进行滚动,但就是这样没有任何向上/向下按钮,,更烦人,他们不使用scrollwheels在第三方老鼠,他们不使用新的双指滚动最新强力笔记本电脑触摸板但是嘿,他们看起来很酷。

更新,5月16日:从10.4.1开始,小部件滚动条现在可以使用鼠标滚轮和双指触控板滚动,这意味着它们不再像过去那样糟糕但它们仍然不如标准的Aqua滚动条那么好用例如,它们不支持跳转到此处滚动,既不通过按键单击也不支持“系统偏好设置”的“外观”面板中的设置。


聊天窗口现在可在iChat 3.0中搜索 - 只需使用标准的编辑→查找子菜单或标准菜单键快捷键You need to put the focus on the conversation pane, however; it doesn’t work when the focus is on the text input field这本应该一直启用,但迟到总比没有好(感谢马特·皮尔斯伯里)。


‘Save Image As…’ Contextual Menu Item 

以前版本的Safari有一个“Save Image As ...”上下文菜单项,允许您选择下载图像的目的地此命令已从Safari 2.0中的默认上下文菜单中消失,但如果您按住Option键,则“将图像保存到”你的下载文件夹'“命令更改为”将图像另存为...“。


Nat Irons观察:

“This pertains to 10.3.9 too, but Safari’s cookie display in 1.3 and 2.0 now intelligently sorts domains by ignoring any leading periods or ‘www’ prefixes, so a ‘www.bestbuy.com’ cookie appears next to a ‘bestbuy.com’ cookie in what usually turns out to be a staggeringly long listSmoove“。


More on Fitts’s Law and the Edges of the Screen 

Fitts定律将屏幕目标用作可点击目标的好处 - 完全在中讨论苹果和聚光灯下菜单条目- 也被仪表板利用当您处于仪表板模式时,通过单击左下角的“+”按钮打开小组件栏在一个很好的联系,这个按钮的点击目标延伸到屏幕的左下角尝试一下 - 只需将指针扔到角落即可点击在屏幕的边缘也适用于打左/右按钮,页面通过小部件在酒吧。

另一方面,Dock仍然没有利用Fitts定律进行拖放将项目拖动到Dock中的图标时,无法直接在您要定位的图标下拖动到屏幕边缘(或下一个到图标,如果,像任何明智的人,你已经将你的Dock放在屏幕的一侧)令人抓狂的是Dock点击图标时考虑Fitts定律 - 你可以点击Dock中应用程序图标的下方/旁边来激活它,但你不能在屏幕边缘使用相同的像素进行拖放。


No More Pasting Passwords Into Authentication Dialogs 

The system’s standard authentication dialog used to allow for pasting in the password field; in Tiger, it doesn’t我用这个测试版软件,通过下载新构建分布式密码保护的磁盘映像和密码在电子邮件中发送消息假设这一变化是为增加安全性,但是,它是一个好主意。


Stale Icons 

现在,最后,当文件被另一个进程创建,移动或删除时,更改会立即反映在Finder中例如,如果从命令行删除文件,它将立即从其出现的任何Finder窗口中消失。

但是,与图标相关的更改仍然不会立即生效For example, let’s say SubEthaEdit has claimed “.csv” files, but you’d rather have them open in BBEdit by default选择包含在其他几个文件夹中的一个此类文件,对其执行获取信息,将“打开方式”应用程序更改为BBEdit,然后单击“全部更改”以使BBEdit成为“.csv”文件的默认编辑器。

所有当前可见的“.csv”文件的图标应该更新以反映更改,但它们不会Finder更新的唯一图标是您选择获取信息的文件但是,如果您双击其中一个带有陈旧SubEthaEdit图标的“.csv”文件,它实际上将在BBEdit中打开这个错误已经存在于Mac OS X的整个生命周期中。


Microsoft Fonts Still Included 

微软的跨平台字体仍与Tiger一起安装This includes the stellar Verdana and Georgia (which are both highly optimized for on-screen display), as well as lesser fonts such as Times New Roman (not to be confused with Times, which comes from Apple), Courier New (which I’ve always felt would be more aptly named “Courier Anemic”), Trebuchet, Webdings,宋体,以及每个人的最爱:Comic Sans MS。

This was a major concern for web designers once word spread that Internet Explorer was no longer included; in previous versions of the OS, these Microsoft fonts were officially considered components of the IE installationVerdana和Georgia特别重要 - 它们是网页设计师可以为所有Mac和Windows用户提供的唯一高质量屏幕字体。


Modify the Modifier Keys 

在“系统偏好设置”的“键盘和鼠标”面板的“键盘”部分中,有一个新的“修改键”按钮单击它,您会看到一个对话框,您可以在其中更改任何修改键的含义,包括Caps Lock键:

修改修改键的含义。

我唯一的抱怨是它不包括iBook和PowerBook键盘上的Enter键。


‘Welcome to Macintosh’ 

在启动时,Tiger不再显示一系列含糊不清的状态消息,描述哪些子系统正在启动你在Tiger启动序列中看到的所有内容:灰色的Apple徽标屏幕,然后是Apple徽标下的微调器,然后是带有文本“Getting Mac OS X”的进度条接下来是登录面板。

因此,我认为这是“欢迎使用Macintosh”这一短语(同样如此)Nat Irons提交此观察结果的人是Apple最后一次高调使用“Macintosh”“Mac” is used all over the place — PowerMac, iMac, eMac, Mac OS X, .Mac — but the full “Macintosh” has apparently been placed on the same shelf as the six-color Apple logo.

更新:至少还有两个“Macintosh”实例:

  • Finder的关于盒子仍然包含口号“Macintosh桌面体验”(由于斯科特·刘易斯和彼得·奥罗兹。)
  • The default name for the startup disk on a new Mac is still “Macintosh HD”. (Thanks to迈克尔克罗夫特。)

Multiple Get Info Windows 

In the beginning — meaning in the classic Mac OS — there was the Get Info commandSelect a bunch of files, choose File → Get Info (or use the Command-I menu key shortcut), and the Finder would open a separate Info window for each selected itemFor a small number of files, the Finder would intelligently tile the windows on screen such that they could be compared side-by-side.

Mac OS X 10.0 replaced the Finder’s each-item-gets-its-own-info-window concept with the Info Inspector, a single window that applied to whatever was selected in the FinderRather than showing multiple items’ info side-by-side, it displayed a single list of shared attributes for multiple itemsThis change was despised by just about everyone who didn’t previously work for NeXT.

Classic-style Get Info windows returned to the Finder in 10.2, but, frustratingly, only if you invoked the Get Info command one item at a timeWith multiple items selected, you still got a single “Multiple Item Info” window.

The Tiger Finder has finally gone back to the classic style: select multiple items, invoke Get Info, and you get a separate Get Info window for each item.

If you really want the single-window Info Inspector, it’s still available via Command-Option-IOr, with Command-Control-I, you can get a version of the single-window summary info in a regular window (as opposed to the floating palette used by the Command-Option-I inspector).

更新:If you’ve got more than 10 items selected and do a Command-I, the Finder reverts to the old-style single info window. This is a nice touch — if you have that many items selected, it’s likely what you wantedThis is especially true if you’re accustomed to the previous behavior and are in the habit of selected a large group of files and using Get Info to see how large the entire group is.

(谢谢尼克·马卡基斯for the original tip, and to Ken Sjoquist for noting the difference with more than 10 items selected.)


Internet Explorer No Longer Included 

如果您安装Tiger作为升级,您将不会注意到,但新安装的Mac OS X不再包含Internet Explorer(这也意味着全新的Mac机从没有IE的工厂发货。)升级者不会注意到,因为IE的现有副本保持不变。

这种情况最终会发生,这是不可避免的,现在看来是个好时机现在是时候让世界承认Mac IE已经死了。

(谢谢詹姆斯邓肯戴维森。)


Spotlight Menu Keyboard Shortcuts 

转到Spotlight菜单并输入查询结果开始填写时,按住Command键结果列表中的默认选项将从“全部显示”命令更改为“热门命中”因此,您可以按Command-Return选择Spotlight菜单搜索的Top Hit(谢谢乔什布莱恩特。)

您可以使用Command-↑和Command-↓在结果列表中每个类别的顶部匹配之间跳转您可以使用Control-↑和Control-↓跳转到菜单中的第一个和最后一个项目(分别为“全部显示”和“聚光灯首选项”)。

您可以按住Command键并单击结果列表中的任何项目,以在Finder中显示该项目,而不是打开它。


Safari’s Address Bar Is Customizable 

您可以像大多数Mac OS X应用程序一样自定义Safari 2.0的地址栏:

  • 您可以使用Command-drag重新排列地址栏中元素的顺序
  • “视图”菜单中有一个“自定义地址栏”命令,可打开一个对话框,您可以在其中添加和删除其他按钮。

这种变化的副作用是Safari的View菜单中的伪造“Show”菜单项 - 由于它根本不是菜单命令而是永久禁用的,而是一个标签,我两年前在这里抱怨过- 离开了Safari 2.0中的“视图”菜单既简化又更有用。

(感谢很多人指出这一点。)


The Sizzling Trash Can Sound 

Tiger Finder增加了一堆新的愚蠢的用户界面声音最令人讨厌的是当你清空垃圾时播放的那个I’m not even sure what it’s supposed to be — crumpling paper? To me it sounds like something sizzling in a frying pan这是我对微软的期望,而不是Apple。


Dictionary Look-Ups From Other Apps 

Tiger includes a new dictionary application, called, appropriately enough, DictionaryIts data sources are the New Oxford American Dictionary and the Oxford American Writers Thesaurus(更新:几个非美国读者已经确认这些是唯一可用的数据文件无论你选择你的主要语言——德语,西班牙语,荷兰语,日本,无论你在美国字典的英文数据。)

There are a few convenient ways to invoke dictionary look-ups from other applications:

  • For any services-aware app, there’s a “Look Up in Dictionary” command in the Services menuThis uses the selected text in the current application as the look-up query, and the results are displayed in Dictionary app’s main window(Dictionary’s typesetting is pretty nice, too; it’s actually a Web Kit view, with the layout and typesetting specified via XSLT transformations. Baskerville is a nice choice for the main typeface.)

  • For most Cocoa apps, there’s a “Look Up in Dictionary” command in the contextual menu when you Control-click on a word in an NSTextView field这也适用于Web Kit视图Note that this not a simple Cocoa-vs.-Carbon issue; it’s the control views NSTextView and WebView which have this capabilityYes, it doesn’t work in BBEdit, but not because BBEdit isn’t “Cocoa”But Cocoa apps that use their own custom text views which aren’t derived from NSTextView, like, say,TextMate的, don’t get “free” support for this contextual menu command, eitherI’m hoping this is something developers will be able to add support for.

    By default, look-ups from the contextual menu are displayed in the Dictionary app, just like look-ups from the Services menu. But there’s a preference in Dictionary to use the “Dictionary panel” for contextual menu look-upsThe panel is really neat — it displays the definition in a small, index-card-like floating panel directly under the looked-up word, right in the current application非常聪明,非常方便Unfortunately, whatever magic is being used to display this panel prevents it from being captured in a screenshot(If you’ve figured out a way to get a screenshot of it, let me know.)

    更新:A bunch of readers wrote to point out that you can use the Grab utility’s timed-screenshot feature to snap a screenshot of the Dictionary Panel我一直在用Snapz Profor so long, I forgot about Grab这是一个例子:

    The Dictionary Panel in action.

  • There’s a system-wide keyboard shortcut, Control-Command-D, which, rather than being tied to the item in the Services menu, is specified in a special new “Dictionary” section in the Keyboard Shortcuts section of the Keyboard & Mouse panel in System PreferencesLike the contextual menu command, this only seems to work in Cocoa apps that use NSTextView and WebViewLook-ups via this keyboard shortcut are总是displayed using the Dictionary panel.

    使用键盘快捷键有点好奇Rather than using the selected text as input for the query, it uses whatever word is underneath the mouse cursorSo if you select some word (in, say, TextEdit or Safari), but move the mouse cursor over some other word, when you hit Control-Command-D, it’s the word under the mouse cursor that gets looked upConversely, if the mouse point isn’t currently hovering over a word, you can’t use the keyboard shortcutI don’t see the appeal of this at all: if you’re already using the mouse, it’s much more convenient to use the contextual menu; and if your hands are on the keyboard, you’ve got to take one off to position the mouse over the word you want to look up before you invoke the keyboard shortcutIt would make a lot more sense for the keyboard shortcut to use the text selection, or whatever word the insertion point is touching.

    更新:If after invoking the Command-Control-D shortcut, if keep the Command and Control keys pressed down, you can move the mouse around and the Dictionary panel will move around with the pointer, showing the definition for each word you hover over.

(There’s also a Dictionary Dashboard widget, but the only way to use it is to switch to Dashboard and type your query in the Dictionary widget by handI’m more interested in ways to invoke look-ups on-the-fly while I’m reading or writing.)


费茨定律和苹果和聚光灯下菜单

20年后,Apple终于发挥了最大的优势菲茨的定律关于Apple菜单How? By allowing the target area for the Apple menu to extend all the way to the top-left corner of the main display.

Fitts定律的要点是指向目标所需的时间 - 在我们的例子中,使用鼠标或触控板 - 是目标的距离和大小的函数Bigger and closer targets are easier to hit听起来很明显。

显而易见的是,显示器边缘的像素实际上是无限地大目标您可以尽可能“向上”移动鼠标,屏幕上的指针将保留在屏幕上的顶行像素中这就是为什么Mac OS菜单栏比Windows中的菜单栏(以及破坏Windows UI的所有开源桌面)更容易被击中的原因。

显示屏上有四个无限大的像素尺寸 - 角落在显示器上的数百万像素中,这四个像素是迄今为止最容易被击中的Drunk and blindfolded, you could still effortlessly put the mouse pointer precisely on any of these four pixels — move the mouse “way up, way left”, and you know it’ll be positioned in the very top-left corner of the screen.

单击左上角以触发Apple菜单。

从Tiger开始,您现在可以单击左上角以触发Apple菜单在菜单栏的另一侧,您可以单击右上角以触发Spotlight菜单将这些菜单扩展到角落只会消耗一些额外的可见像素,但会大大增加您定位它们的难易程度。


iChat Text Input Field Stays Active When Person Goes Offline 

iChat在以前的版本中,当你聊天就离线,你聊天窗口中的文本输入字段将消失这是有道理的,因为您无法向未登录AIM的人发送消息。

然而,在iChat 3(Tiger中的新版本)中,即使您正在与之交谈的人已经离开,文本输入字段仍然处于启用状态并处于活动状态只有在您在字段中键入消息并点击返回后,您才会收到一张表单,告诉您由于此人不再在线而无法发送该消息希望这是一个错误,而不是设计,因为它是令人愤怒的。

更新:事实上,已有数十位读者 - 几十位读者 - 写道,这种变化绝对是一个特征,而不是一个错误这笔交易是一些AIM客户支持“隐身”,这意味着您已登录,但其他人看起来好像您处于离线状态因此,对于以前版本的iChat,您无法与任何不可见的人聊天,因为聊天窗口中的文本输入字段会因为看起来像是离线而消失。

我真的希望这是一个偏好设置至少,应该在每个聊天窗口中显示您正在聊天的人的状态,而无需打开聊天参与者抽屉消失的文本输入字段之前用于此目的。


Discontinuous Text Selections in NSTextView 

NSTextView — the default text editing control in Cocoa apps — has been significantly upgradedYou can do discontinuous selections with Command-drag, and column selections with Option-dragYou can use these new selection gestures in most Cocoa apps — including intextarea的fields in Safari and any other app that uses Web Kit. (Thanks toQuentin Carnicelli。)


Contextual Menu for Finder Sidebar 

为数不多的实际改善老虎仪:你终于可以在侧边栏上下文菜单项(感谢Ferdinand Svehla。)


StuffIt扩张器不再包括在内

完整的Mac OS X安装不再包含StuffIt Expander如果您作为升级安装,则旧的副本保持不变,但如果您执行全新安装,则不会安装它。

On the plus side, the faceless BOMArchiveHelper application, which in 10.3 only expanded ‘.zip’ files, now expands ‘.gz’, ‘.tar’, ‘.bz2’, and possibly other open archive formats — and it does so much faster than StuffIt ExpanderBut, StuffIt’s own file formats (‘.sit’ and ‘.sitx’) aren’t open, and so if you want to be able to open them, you’ll need to install StuffIt Expander on your own.

(谢谢丹便雅悯。)


Plist Preference Files Default to Binary 

Mac OS X始终支持多种属性列表文件格式(a.k.a“的Plist”)系统的内置首选项系统使用plist文件进行存储,10.3及更早版本中首选项文件的默认格式为XML但是,10.4中的默认值是二进制您可以使用文本编辑器自己查看它,以检查首选项文件夹中的plist文件。

如果要以纯文本格式查看plist prefs文件的人类可读版本,请使用默认command; e.g.违约读com.apple.finder有关更多详细信息,请查看该手册页plutil工具检查任何plist文件内容的最简单方法 - 无论是二进制还是XML - 都是属性列表编辑器。


‘.app’ File Extensions 

If you turn on the Finder’s “Show all file extensions” preference, this now includes the “.app” extension on application bundles在10.3及更早版本中,“。app”包是一个特殊的例外 - 即使打开此设置,它们也从未显示过在Tiger中,即使表面上看起来是Finder的偏好,你也会看到它们到处当你有这个优先权时你。

例如in Script Editor’s Open Dictionary dialog:

Script Editor's Open Dictionary dialog box shows '.app' file extensions

我无法忍受到处看到这些平淡无奇的“.app”扩展,但我不想关闭“显示所有文件扩展名”的偏好,因为我确实希望看到其余的我想要的是旧的行为,“显示所有文件扩展名,除了平淡的'.app',它们完全贬低了每个应用程序的名称”。